Found the missing half of the Universe

The scientists finally detect the 'missing matter' of the Universe

Found the missing half of the Universe

For the first time, they've identified half of the normal matter in our universe that was predicted in mathematical models but not yet observed.

What they found was this huge interlocking web of baryon particles. These simulations have hinted about the fact that all the galaxies in the Universe are connected with long filaments of regular matter but scientists could not get any evidence regarding those connections or so-called missing matter.

The familiar matter in the universe, known as baryonic matter, which is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons, only makes up about 2.5 percent of the universe. Two teams of researchers have now claimed to have resolved this issue.

The new study confirmed that the missing ordinary matter can be discovered in the form of filaments of these diffuse gasses, which link the galaxies.

Therefore, the two teams, one from the University of British Columbia, and the other from the University of Edinburgh, obtained different results. The gas is very weak and not hot enough to be detected by X-ray telescopes so scientists were not able to see it before.

"There's no sweet spot - no sweet instrument that we've invented yet that can directly observe this gas", says Richard Ellis at University College London.

The teams took advantage of something called the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. As this light moves through hot gas, some of it scatters, leaving a patch in the CMB. Since the tendrils of gas between galaxies are so diffuse, the dim blotches they cause are far too slight to be seen directly on Plancks map.

The teams used a stacking effect to accentuate the otherwise-dim space between galaxies. The first group discovered that these filaments were almost three times denser compared with the average of normal matter.

With a total of 260,000 pairs of such galaxies already explored, it turned out that in filamentary structures between them, baryonic matter is several times denser than elsewhere in the universe. "We expect some differences [between the density] because we are looking at filaments at different distances".

"Everybody sort of knows that it has to be there, but this is the first time that somebody - two different groups, no less - has come up with a definitive detection", says Ralph Kraft at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in MA.

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